By Decker Weiss, NMD.
This is a tale of three discoveries. One transpired deep in the rainforests of Peru. Another happened high in the mountains of Japan. And the third discovery occurred in a university on the East Coast of the United States. All of these discoveries resulted in amazing all-natural nutritional supplements. All of these nutritional supplements have powerful effects on the human immune system. And, while each of these natural nutritional supplements help prevent and treat immune diseases individually, together they may work even more powerfully to help strengthen our immunity and keep us cancer-free.
- Cat's Claw POA's effect on cancer and the immune system
- What are Maitake mushrooms?
- Maitake mushroom's D-fraction stops the growth of cancer cells
- What is IP-6 found in Rice Bran?
- How does IP-6 help kill cancer cells?
- Is it possible to over stimulate the immune system?
- References for natural cancer preventions
What is Cats Claw?
Cats claw is an herbal plant that might be one of the most confusing (and most effective) nutritional supplements available in health food stores todaywith some fairly good reasons.
First, its mere name can be bewildering. Currently, there are at least 16 plants in the world that are called cats claw. Sometimes these plants are referred to as Una de Gato, Spanish for cats claw. While Uncaria tomentosa is the Latin name of the plant most frequently sold as cats claw supplements, these products vary vastly. Some cats claw nutritional supplements contain cats claw bark, some contain cats claw stems, and others contain compounds from the leaves of cats claw. All of these claim to help the immune system. 1
However, it is the root of Uncaria tomentosa that actually contains the true cats claw health benefits. Scientists, who have extensively studied every part of the plant, discovered that only extracts made from cats claw root possess the power to treat and prevent disease. While it would seem that this vital understanding might help clear up some cats claw confusion, not all Uncaria tomentosa roots actually contain medicinal properties. 2
To determine which cats claw roots do have medicinal properties, we have to go to the rainforests of Peru. This is where Uncaria tomentosa thrives. Its a woody vine thats found at the base of tall trees in the rainforests. As the plant grows, it winds up and around the tree, attaching itself to the trunk with curved cat-like claws found at the junctions of its leaves. The Asháninka Indians, who make these rainforests their home, have used the roots of the cats claw plant for thousands of years to reverse illness and maintain health in the tribe. 1,2
Healers in the Asháninka tribe attribute the properties in cats claw to the good spirits that live in the plants roots. In order to obtain these properties, the correct cats claw root must first be harvested. The Asháninka healers know which cats claw to use; they can actually see the good spirits hidden inside the root of the plant before they collect them. Some cats claw plant roots have the good spirits. Some cats claw plant roots dont. If the cats claw root with good spirits is mixed with any cats claw root without good spirits, the power is lost. While there are no visible differences in the plants or the roots, only certain cats claw roots possess the power to heal. And, only the Asháninka tribal healers seem to be able to see them. 2
Amazingly, however, scientists who were given cats claw roots by the Asháninka to study in the laboratory discovered that they were able to see the good spirits, too. Using high performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC, a laboratory process that identifies various chemical compounds, the good spirits of cats claw roots were revealed to actually be important medicinal compounds, called pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (or POAs). 2
At the same time, the scientists studying cats claw found they could see the non-healing properties as well. Again, using HPLC, they also discovered the presence of tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (or TOAs) in certain cats claw roots. While the POAs have very powerful effects in the immune system, the TOAs have different effects in the body, none of which help the immune system cells at all. 3-6
And, if the TOAs and POAs are mixed together (as so often happens in the vast majority of cats claw products), the resulting product is useless to healing and health. The TOAs cancel out the action of the POAs, making the cats claw root extract ineffective. Even as little as 1% TOA content can cause POAs to lose their ability to beneficially modulate the immune system. 2,7
What Effect Do the POAs From Cats Claw Root Have On Our Immune System?
Cats claw POAs work to keep us healthy by directly interacting with white blood cells, the backbone of our immune system. Our white blood cells are the disease fighting cells of the human body. These highly specialized cells fight diseases we catch, such as colds and flu, as well as diseases that start within our own cells, such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. There are many kinds of white blood cells; each has a specific job to do in fighting diseases. 8
Certain POAs help white blood cells called macrophages work faster. The macrophages job is to engulf and digest foreign material. This means that macrophages can ingest more bacteria and disease causing microbes when they are exposed to POAs. 9,10 The scientists also discovered that POA cats claw extract increases the production of a chemical protein called interleukin, that is secreted by macrophages.11 Interleukin (IL-1) has important immune enhancing properties. IL-1 alerts resting white blood cells and spurs them into action. It also helps make other biochemicals essential to an activated immune system. 12 (90% of white blood cells are in reserve)
POAs also help Beta cells. 9,10 Beta cells are white blood cells that make antibodies that kill germs. Each beta cell is programmed to make one specific antibody that is effective against one specific germ (such as a bacteria, virus, or fungus). 12 When scientists looked at the number of beta cells after they were exposed to POA cats claw root extract, they found that the beta cells had increased significantly, resulting in an increased supply of antibodies. 13
And perhaps most importantly as they relate to cancer, the POAs in cats claw root extract help increase the number of T-cells, the true soldiers of the immune system. 13 There are many different kinds of these white blood cells, including Helper T-cells, Suppressor T-cells, and Killer T-cells. Increased Helper, Suppressor, and Killer T-cells can more effectively destroy cancer cells. Increasing the number of circulating T-cells is very important in a disease like AIDS as well. 12
European health care providers are often very comfortable integrating the use of herbal and nutritional supplements as vital components of their patients cancer treatments. In Austria alone, cats claw extract is used together with conventional treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery), to treat hundreds of cancer patients every year. 14
A recent clinical observational study looked at POA cats claw extract in 78 people with very advanced brain cancer. All of the participants reported that the special POA cats claw helped them feel better, have more vitality, and reduced side effects (such as nausea) caused by their conventional cancer treatment. The researchers felt that POA cats claw extract may also prove to have benefit in extending the life span of people with these types of deadly brain cancers. 15
Maitake (pronounced my-tok-kee) mushrooms are native to the mountain forests of Japan. They are large mushrooms, some growing up to fifty pounds, characterized by overlapping, rippling caps. For thousands of years, maitake mushrooms have been linked to good health in those who eat them. They have been highly prized for centuries. During the feudal era of Japan, maitake mushrooms were equal to their weight in silver. 16
Maitake mushrooms are known by many names. Maitakes Latin name is "Grifola frondosa" which refers to the griffin, a mythical half-lion and half-eagle that symbolizes strength and vigilance. They are sometimes called Hen-of-the-Woods, as their overlapping caps are similar to the plumage of barnyard fowl. Maitakes are also known as dancing mushrooms. This name may reflect the mushrooms wavy, rippling appearance. It may also originate from the dance of joy mushroom hunters perform when they find maitakes in the woods. 16
Because maitakes are well known as healthy food, researchers interested in medicinal mushrooms have studied them extensively. They discovered many maitake compounds with dramatic health-promoting potential. One of these compounds, maitake D-fraction, has particularly powerful anti-cancer effects. 17
In lab studies, D-fraction stops the growth of cancer cells and cancerous tumors. Maitake D-fraction stimulates the activity of two white blood cells, macrophages and natural killer cells. These white blood cells then trigger the production of interleukins and other lymphokines, two biochemicals that help mediate the immune response. Maitake also inhibits some of the mechanisms that promote metastasis, or spread, of cancer cells in the lymph system and bloodstream. 18-20
Because of this success, maitake D-fraction is now being used in preliminary clinical trials of women with breast cancer.16 One study has reported significant improvement of symptoms, including reduction of the tumor. The maitake D-fraction was given to breast cancer patients in addition to standard chemotherapy. 17
In the mid 1980s, scientists at the University of Maryland were studying various plant fibers and how they affected our health. They were particularly interested in fiber and cancer. They discovered that fiber and bran contain many natural components. One of these components, IP-6, has been studied extensively for over 20 years. 21-26
IP-6 is the abbreviation for inositol hexaphosphate, an all-natural substance found in the bran of brown rice. IP-6 is also referred to as phytic acid. 27 Inositol is part of the B vitamin group,28 and IP-6, in a special and specific combination with inositol, has powerful effects on the immune system. 29
Scientists who study IP-6 with inositol have discovered many amazing things how this combination works. While many cancer drugs work by killing all cells, both cancerous and normal, IP-6 with inositol only affects cancer cells. When cancer cells in the laboratory are exposed to IP-6 with inositol, they lose their aggressive nature, stop dividing uncontrollably, and eventually die. The combination of IP-6 with inositol does not affect normal cells. 29-31
Researchers have also discovered that this powerful combination boosts the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, those important white blood cells that naturally kill cancer cells. 29-31 Increased NK cell activity can result in the increased killing of cancer cells, as well as cells infected by viruses. 12 And, finally, researchers have discovered that IP-6 with inositol also acts like an antioxidant to help prevent cellular damage. 32
If IP-6 Comes From Bran, Wouldnt Eating More Whole Grain or High Fiber Foods Provide IP-6?
Scientists who study a specific IP-6 and inositol blend asked this very same question and went to the laboratory to find the answer. They took cancerous tumors and exposed them to either the nutrients of fiber and bran, or to IP-6. The nutrients of the fiber and bran were the equivalent of a 20% bran diet. The scientists discovered that the IP-6 was twice as effective as the nutrients of the 20% bran diet. 33
In bran or fiber, IP-6 is bound to protein. For IP-6 to be well absorbed in the stomach, enter the bloodstream, and travel to the various organs where cancer has occurred, the IP-6 must first be separated from the protein. This normally happens with digestion, but it can take awhile and is inefficient. Phytase, an enzyme found in food and also the intestine, can actually break down IP-6, making it ineffective as a cancer fighter. The longer it takes IP-6 to be released from food, the more time phytase has to break down IP-6 to an ineffective form. Pure IP-6 is better, because it will be absorbed into the bloodstream before phytase has a chance to destroy it. 29,33
Why Not Just Take IP-6 by Itself? Why Does IP-6 Need To Be Combined With Inositol?
When scientists studying this combination used plain IP-6 in the laboratory, good cancer preventative effects and good cancer killing effects happened.26,35-37 When scientists used plain inositol in the laboratory, again, good cancer preventative and cancer killing effects occurred. 38-31 However, when IP-6 was combined with inositol, powerful cancer killing and cancer preventative effects happened. 29,30 Clearly, IP-6 with inositol is the superior choice in cancer prevention.
Scientists are interested in the very unique way IP-6 works in our body. One theory of how this combination exerts its effects is that IP-6 mixed with inositol breaks down into IP-3 in the body. IP-3 is more active than IP-6, but is very unstable. That is why it is so important to use a product that is an exact combination of IP-6 and inositol, precursors that are both needed to yield the maximum amount of IP-3 needed for immune stimulation and cancer growth inhibition. 29,30
If These Three Natural Products Are Taken Together, Could They Over-Stimulate My Immune System?
That is a very good question. And at first glance, it might seem a possibility. However, one of the most amazing aspects of all three nutritional products, POA cats claw root extract, maitake d-fraction, and IP-6 with inositol, is their ability to both strengthen a weakened immune system and calm down a hyperactive immune system. They modulate the immune system. 9
The POAs in cats claw root extract do not take over the immune systems job, they simply strengthen the bodys immune system so it can do its job better. 9-11,13 Maitake D-fraction does not act on cancer cells directly, it encourages the bodys own immune system regulators to act. 17-21 IP-6 with inositol does not increase NK cells, it increases NK cell activity. 29-32 In other words, these three natural discoveries strengthen and balance the immune system without the fear of over-stimulation.
In fact, it is theorized that cats claw root extract, maitake mushrooms, and IP-6 with inositol may work synergistically. Meaning, together they strengthen and balance the immune system even better when they are taken together. However, if you use a cats claw supplement that contains any amount of TOAs, not only will the good spirits of the POAs be cancelled, experts believe that they will interfere with IP-6 with inositol as well. 42 Thats why it is vital to choose a cats claw supplement that is 100% TOA-free and says so on its label.
Herbal Cancer Remedies: Conclusions
These three natural discoveries may be some of the most important health discoveries to date. From the mountains of Japan, the rainforests of Peru, and the learned halls of a prestigious university we have been given powerful allies in healthy immunity and cancer prevention. Thankfully, there are formulas available at health food stores that contain all three natural discovery dietary supplements in one convenient product.
Our immune systems are continuously assaulted from pollutants in the environment, toxic additives in our food, and common chemicals we use and depend on everyday. These assaults can leave us vulnerable to so-called simple diseases, like colds and the flu, as well as serious problems, such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. Staving off these threats means our white blood cells must stand ready to mount incredibly intricate defenses. Cats claw root extract, maitake D-fraction, and IP-6 with inositol provide powerful protection from disease and an all natural boost to our immune system.
Natural Cancer Preventions: References
1. Schauss AG. Cat's Claw: Una de Gato. Tacoma, Wa: Foundation for Biosocial Research; 1998:4-6.
2. Keplinger K, Laus G, Wurm M, Dierich MP, Teppner H. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.--ethnomedicinal use and new pharmacological, toxicological and botanical results. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999;64:23-34.
3. Jin RM, Chen CX, Li YK, Xu PK. Effect of rhynchophylline on platelet aggregation and experimental thrombosis. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao. 1991;26:246-249.
4. Zhang W, Liu GX. Effects of rhynchophylline on myocardial contractility in anaesthetized dogs and cats. Chung Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao. 1986;7:426-428.
5. Zhang W, Liu GX, Huang XN. Effect of rhynchophylline on the contraction of rabbit aorta. Chung Kuo Li Hsueh Pao. 1987;8:425-429.
6. Kanatani H, Kohda H, Yamasaki K, et al. The active principles of the branchlet and hook of Uncaria sinensis Oliv. examined with a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor-binding assay. Journal of Pharm Pharmacology. 1985;37:401-404.
7. Wurm M, Kacani L, Laus G, Keplinger K, Dierich MP. Pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce human endothelial cells to release a lymphocyte proliferation regulating factor. Planta Medica. 1998;65:701-704.
8. Sommers C. Immunity and inflammation. In: Porth CM. Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott; 1998: 189-212.
9. Wagner H, Kreutzkamp B, Jurcic K. Die alkaloide von uncaria tomentosa und ihre phagozytosesteigernde wirkung (The alkaloids of Uncaria tomentosa and their phagocytosis increasing effects). Planta Medica. 1985;5:419-423.
10. Kreutzkamp B. Niedermolekulare Inhaltsstoffe mit immunstimulierenden Eigenschaften aus Uncaria tomentosa, Okouba aubrivellei und andere Drogen, Inaugural Dissertation, Universität München. 1994:71-72.
11. LeMaire I, Assinewe V, Cano P, Awang D, Arnason JT. Stimulation of interleukin-1 and-6 production in alveolar macrophages by the neotropical liana, Uncaria tomentosa (uña de gato). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999;64:109-115.
12. Sommers C. Immunity and inflammation. In: Porth CM. Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott; 1998: 189-212.
13. Wurm M, Kacani L, Laus G, Keplinger K, Dierich MP. Pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce human endothelial cells to release a lymphocyte proliferation regulating factor. Planta Medica. 1998;65:701-704.
14. Steinberg P. Uncaria tomentosa (cats claw): a wondrous herb from the Peruvian rainforest. Townsend Letter for Doctors. 1994;442-443.
15. Saventaro Cats Claw and Cancer Therapeutics. The Doctors Prescription for Healthy Living. 1999; 4:16-17.
16. Susan Love MD. Complementary and alternative therapies: maitake mushrooms. Accessed April 7, 2002. http://www.susanlovemd.com /comp_alt_frames.html.
17. Kidd PM. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment. Alternative Medicine Review. 2000;5:4-27.
18. Adachi Y, Okazaki M, Ohno N, Yadomae T. Enhancement of cytokine production by macrophages stimulated with (1-->3)- beta-D-glucan, grifolan (GRN), isolated from Grifola frondosa. Biological Pharm Bulletin. 1994;17:1554-60.
19. Borchers, A.T., et al. Mushrooms, tumors and immunity. Proc Society Experimental Biological Medicine. 221(4):281-93, 1999.
20. Nanba H, Kubo K. Effect of Maitake D-fraction on cancer prevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;833: 204-207.
21. Shamsuddin AM. Vucenik I. Metabolism and cellular functions of IP6: a review. Anticancer Research. 1999;19:3733-3736.
22. Vucenik I, Yang G, Shamsuddin AM. Inositol hexaphosphate and inositol inhibit DMBA-induced rat mammary cancer. Carcinogenesis. 1995;16:1055-1058.
23. Vucenik I, Tantivejkul K, Zhang ZS, Cole KE, Saied I, Shamsuddin AM. IP6 in treatment of liver cancer. I. IP6 inhibits growth and reverses transformed phenotype in HepG2 human liver cancer cell line. Anticancer Research. 1998;18(6A):4083-4090.
24. Vucenik I, Zhang ZS, Shamsuddin AM. IP6 in treatment of liver cancer. II. Intra-tumoral injection of IP6 regresses pre-existing human liver cancer xenotransplanted in nude mice. Anticancer Research. 1998;18:4091-4096.
25. Vucenik I, Kalebic T, Tantivejkul K, Shamsuddin AM. Novel anticancer function of inositol hexaphos phate: inhibition of human rhabdomyosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. Anticancer Research. 1998;18:1377-1384.
26. Ishikawa T, Nakatsuru Y, Zarkovic M, Shamsuddin AM. Inhibition of skin cancer by IP6 in vivo: initiation-promotion model. Anticancer Research. 1999;19:3749-3752.
27. Fleming T., ed. Inositol hexaphosphate. In: PDR® for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company; 2001: 222-223.
28. Fleming T., ed. Myo-inositol. In: PDR® for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company; 2001: 315-318.
29. Shamsuddin AM, Ullah A, Chakravarthy K. Inositol and inositol hexaphosphate suppress cell proliferation and tumor formation in CD-1 mice. Carcinogenesis. 1989;10:1461-1463.
30. Vucenil I, Yang G-Y, Shamsuddin AM. Inositol hexaphosphate and inositol inhibit DMBA-induced rat mammary cancer. Carcinogenesis.1995;16:1055-1058.
31. Shamsuddin AM. Inositol phosphates have novel anticancer function. Journal of Nutrition. 1995;125(3 Suppl):725S-732S.
32. Shamsuddin AM. An anticancer cocktail: IP-6 and inositol. In: IP-6: Natures Revolutionary Cancer-Fighter. New York: Kensington Publishing Company; 1998:114-121.
33. Vucenik I, Yang G, Shamsuddin AM. Comparison of pure inositol hexaphosphate and high-bran diet in the prevention of DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Nutrition Cancer. 1997;28:7-13.
34. Hirose M, Hoshiya T, Akagi K, Futakushi M, Ito N. Inhibition of mammary gland carcinogenesis by green tea catechins and other naturally occurring antioxidants in female Sprague-Dawley rats pretreated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Cancer Letters. 1994;149-156.
35. Jenab M, Thompson LU. Phytic acid in wheat bran affects colon morphology, cell differentiation and apoptosis. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21:1547-1552.
36. Reddy BS, Hirose Y, Cohen LA, Simi B, Cooma I, Rao CV. Preventive potential of wheat bran fractions against experimental colon carcinogenesis: implications for human colon cancer prevention. Cancer Research. 2000;60:4792-4797.
37. Jariwalla RJ. Rice-bran products: phytonutrients with potential applications in preventive and clinical medicine. Drugs Experimental Clinical Research. 2001;27:17-26.
38. Wattenberg LW, Estensen RD. Chemopreventive effects of myo-inositol and dexamethasone on benzo[a]pyrene and 4 - (methylnitrosoamino) - 1 - (3-pyridyl) - 1 - butanone-induced pulmonary carcinogenesis in female A/J mice. Cancer Research. 1996;56:5132-5135.
39. Hecht SS, Kenney PM, Wang M, Upadhyaya P. Dose-response study of myo-inositol as an inhibitor of lung tumorigenesis induced in A/J mice by benzo. Cancer Lett. 2001;167:1-6.
40. Wattenberg LW, Wiedmann TS, Estensen RD, et al. Chemoprevention of pulmonary carcinogenesis by brief exposures to aerosolized budesonide or beclomethasone dipropionate and by the combination of aerosolized budesonide and dietary myo-inositol. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21:179-182.
41. Nishino H, Murakoshi M, Masuda M, et al. Suppression of lung and liver carcinogenesis in mice by oral administration of myo-inositol. Anticancer Research. 1999;19:3663-3664.
42. Keplinger, J. IMMODAL. Pharmaka GmbH, Volders, Austria. Personal communication (electronic mail). May 29, 2002
Author Decker Weiss is a licensed naturopathic medical doctor in the state of Arizona.