Clinical Applications of Electrolyzed Reduced Ionized Water

By Hidemitsu Hayashi, MD.

1. A very important and interesting paper was submitted by Happe in January 1997(1). He says: "the oldest life forms ‘Desulfovibrio gigas’ 3.8 billion years old, had developed an enzyme ‘hydrogenase’ to activate hydrogen; namely, to split molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen. Here, the question presented to us is why it was necessary for the oldest microbes to develop such an enzyme as hydrogenase."

2. The answer to the question could be found in the paper submitted by Shirahata in May ‘97(2). He says that the ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be ‘active hydrogen’. Active hydrogen, or atomic hydrogen, can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Namely, the oldest life forms should have developed ‘hydrogenase’ in order to obtain ‘active hydrogen’, with which they could have succeeded in the fight against ‘active oxygen’ ; which, otherwise, should have had exterminated them. Now we can say that quite a new concept (‘active hydrogen’) as a scavenger, hardly known in the past, is presented. Every life form was originated in water, or H2O, which is produced as a benefit of hydrogen bond energy, a potent energy by which to bind hydrogen with oxygen. Hydrogen bond energy made it possible for hydrogen to bind with oxygen in order to produce H2O. According to this line of logic, we can say that the ideal counter measure against active oxygen should be active hydrogen. Nothing could be a better scavenger than active hydrogen, as far as the principle of hydrogen bonding is concerned. All the discussions on scavengers carried out so far should be reconsidered, and reconstructed from their basic principles from now on.

3. In November ’95 I presented a hypothesis known by the title: ‘Water Regulating Theory (Hayashi’s Model)’ in a US health magazine (3). It says that active oxygen could be scavenged or reduced by atomic hydrogen, which results in production of H2O to give again a birthplace for every life form (Fig1).

My hypothesis was born from the clinical observation study in our clinic. Since May ’85 we have confirmed thousands of clinical improvements, obtained solely by exchanging drinking (as well as cooking water) from tap water to reduced water (tab.1). Those improvements were very exciting and some of them were considered to be miraculous at that time, when Shirahata’s paper was not yet submitted

Before confirmation of clinical improvements as well as exam data, changes of fecal finding have always been observed. We should know that the disgusting odor of feces originates from putrefied substances such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamine, indole, phenol, skatole or nitrosamine which are all pathogenic by their causing production of active oxygen as a result. Indole, phenol or nitrosamine are considered to be carcinogens.

It should be remembered that such putrefied metabolites are the same ones which are produced as a result of putrefaction of protein. Its difference lies only in the fact that the former putrefaction is brought about by intestinal microbes, whereas the latter by aerial microbes (Fig 2,3). In short, production and excretion of disgusting feces means, as a result, nothing but taking putrefied proteins which inevitably brings us to sickness, any way. Based on these facts, I proposed a hypothesis "Pre-and Post-hepatic Organ Theory" in '88, '89 & '90 at the International Symposium on "Man and His Environment in Health and Disease" held in Dallas, Texas, USA (Fig. 4).

I stated, as it is impossible to purify the polluted water in River St. Laurence without purifying the polluted water in Lake Ontario, so it should be impossible to improve the disorders of post-hepatic organs without trying to improve the disorder of pre-hepatic organ, namely putrefaction in gastrointestinal tract. Such clinical experiences have led us to recognize that reduced water is not only effective for restoration of intestinal flora metabolism, but also it could be effective to scavenge active oxygen. Our clinical observation data and my hypothesis were brought to Prof. Shirahata in April '96 and his research has started.

Electrolysis means redox reaction

(4). Electrolysis of water produces H2 gas at the cathode and O2 at the anode respectively (Fig.5). When the amount of atomic hydrogen becomes saturated, molecular hydrogen (H2 gas) is produced. We demonstrated in '95 that reduced water contains increased molecular hydrogen by 200 to 500 times, compared to that in original water before electrolysis (Tab.2). We can notice that reduced water contains both atomic and molecular hydrogen. Molecular hydrogen in reduced water is proven to be split to atomic hydrogen by Shirahata when it is brought into contact with mineral contents in our body. And probably by hydrogenase, which should be inherited from our oldest ancestors, as suggested by Happe. The idea and device to reform water by electrolysis were born in Japan about half a century ago. Such kind of devices could be found nowhere but in Japan. The reason why should be in the difference of water hardness. Japan is a country of soft water, of its hardness being around 50 ppm, whereas hardness in London or Dallas is over 130 ppm. U.S. water hardness map Electrolysis is said to be a principle of plating. Electrolysis of soft water brings little plating of cations such as calcium or magnesium on the surfaces of cathodes, whereas electrolysis of hard water brings significant plating on electrodes, which should have made it impossible for hard water countries to develop such devices. The problem of plating in hard water electrolysis has been, however, solved by a new technology "Autochange-Crossline System" developed several years ago in Japan, which was patented in USA, Canada and Russia. Researches by Shirahata have been made by thee newly patented devices.(Fig.6).

All life forms were born in water. So that, it should be logic to conclude that every necessary condition for birth and existence as well as health and disease of them should be hidden in water (Fig.7). Water or H2O is a compound of hydrogen, a reductant, and oxygen, an oxidant. Therefore, it should be said that all living organisms are under the control of reductant and oxidant, i.e. under the control of reduction and oxidation.

Redox reaction is the most universal, original and important principle on the earth regardless of its being organic or inorganic existence. In short, oxidation brings us to sickness and reduction brings us back to health again. (Fig. 8). It is logic of mine that reaction of active hydrogen against active oxygen, though it is invisible to our eyes, must be underlying, yet the most original and principal reaction. Redox reaction should hidden behind numerous "visible" reactions which we can examine and recognize by so-called clinical exam data (Fig.9). Living organisms have been born in water. Unfortunately, however, water upon which we all depend is nothing but "hydrogen-poor water" because of potent hydrogen bond energy. And hydrogen-poor water is not sufficient enough to reduce active oxygen which had compelled Desulfovibrio gigas to develop hydrogenase to obtain active hydrogen with which they could have tried to fight against active oxygen. In the same meaning, hydrogen-poor water has destined us to suffer from various diseases, and has compelled us to develop procedures to fight against active oxygen, so-called a variety of medical procedures, instead of active hydrogen, which was quite a logical procedure developed by our oddest ancestors. It should be impossible to control diseases as long as we depend on hydrogen-poor water. We should rather say that human medicine developed in the past should have been a kind of procedures constructed on the very perquisite that we could not help but depend on hydrogen-poor water with which we can not take enough advantage in the fight against active oxygen. What a paradox it is that hydrogen bond energy made it possible for hydrogen and oxygen to produce H2O, which, however, is nothing but hydrogen-poor water having destined us to get sick. On the contrary, when we depend on hydrogen-rich water, we can take enough advantage by reducing active oxygen with active hydrogen based on its original potentiality to bind with it derived from hydrogen bond energy itself. Shirahata's paper implies that cell metabolism, either microbe cell or cancer cell, depends on its intracellular water, namely cell metabolism can be variable according to the property of intracellular water, hydrogen-rich or not. There is a possibility that even cancer cells should lose their characteristic of unlimited proliferation when they are cultured in hydrogen-rich water. Now at the end of the 20th century, shortly before the beginning of the 21st century, hydrogen-rich water, born, developed and clarified in Japan, though it is hardly known in the past world, is now in our hands. Our "new" water should be the first priority for all of us to be chosen, as being suggested by Happe, Shirahata and ourselves.

Tab. 1. Clinical Improvements Obtained From The Intake of Reduced Water (1985-2000)

1. Improvement of blood glucose and HbAIC levels in diabetes mellitus.
2. Improvement of peripheral circulation in diabetic gangrene.
3. Improvement of uric acid levels in gout.
4. Improvement of liver function in hepatic disease, cirrhosis of liver, hepatitis.
5. Improvement of gastroduodenal ulcers and prevention of recurrences.
6. Improvement of cholesterol level, hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction.
7. Improvement of hypersensitive disorders, atopic dermatitis, asthma, urticaria.
8. Improvement of auto-immune disorders, rheumatism collagen disease, SLE.
9. Improvement of so called specific diseases, Behcets' syndrome, Crohns' disease, ulcerative colitis Kawasaki's disease.
10. Improvement of malignant tumors of liver, hepatoma, metastatic tumors.
11. Improvement of general malaise, chronic constipation & diarrhea as well as persistent diarrhea occurred after gastric resection.
12. Improvement of dehydration in infants with vomiting and diarrhea caused by viral infection.
13. Improvement of hyperbilirrubinemia in newborns.
14. Experiences of pregnant women who took reduced water during their pregnancy; almost no emesis, smooth delivery, slight jaundice, enough lactation, smooth and satisfactory growth of newborns.

Now, there could be no wonder why such clinical improvements have been obtained. In short, "invisible reaction" of active hydrogen against active oxygen was regulated at first. As a result of it, "visible reaction", so-called clinical exam data as well as clinical symptoms have been improved.


1. Happe, R.P. et al, (1997) Nature, 385, 126
2. Shirahata S. et al, (1997) BioChemistry Biophysics Research Communications., 234, 269-274
3. Hayashi, H., (1995) Explore, 6, 28-31
4. Electrolysis, A Concise Dictionary of Chemistry, page 106, Oxford University Press


Active oxygen species are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which bring about a variety of diseases as well as aging. Reduced water produced near cathode during electrolysis of water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen, extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen, and extremely negative redox potential values. Recently we found that strongly electrolyzed reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage (Shirahata, S. et al., BioChemistry. Biophysics. Research. Commun., 234, 269 274 (1997)). Electrolyzed reduced water suppressed the growth of human normal fibroblast TIG-1, human lung adenocarcinoma A549, and human uterine cervix cancer HeLa, indicating that reduced water affects the signaling pathway of cell cycle. The expression of the interleukin-6 gene was enhanced by reduced water as well as ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin and tannic acid when added to the culture of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells, suggesting that reduced water acts as a reductant to cells.

*Glossary of Terms

ANODE- Electrode through which electric current flows INTO a polarized electrical device.

CATHODE- Electrode through which positive electric current flows OUT OF a polarized electrical device.

CATION- Ion with a positive charge

ELECTROLYSIS- Method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them.

ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER- The decomposition of water (H2O) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen gas (H2) due to an electric current being passed through the water. An electrical power source is connected to two electrodes, or two plates (made from an inert metal such as platinum or stainless steel). Hydrogen will appear at the cathode (negatively charged electrode where electrons are pumped into the water and oxygen will appear at the anode (positively charged electrode). The generated amount of hydrogen is twice the amount of oxygen.

ION(S)- An atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.

IONIC BOND- The force that holds cations and anions together.

IONIZATION- The process in which neutral molecules gain or lose electrons. An ionic bond forms when electrons transfer from one atom to another. This causes a chemical change.

OXIDATION- Any process by which an element loses electrons by molecule, atom or ion during a chemical reaction which causes an increase in oxygen.

PHENOL- (carbolic acid) is a crystalline solid organic compound whose molecules contain carbon. Contains very high acidity levels.

REDUCTION- The process by which an element gains electrons during a chemical reaction, decreasing oxidation. The reactant is than reduced. Oxidation and Reduction always occur together, when one element loses electrons, another one gains electrons. (Reduction-Oxidation Reaction or Redox) In the synthesis of water, hydrogen is oxidized as it is partially loses electrons and oxygen is reduced as it partially gains electrons.

SKATOLE- A crystalline organic compound formed in the intestine by bacterial composition of tryptophan, that has a strong fecal odor, found in feces.

WATER- (H2O)- Compound substance composed of the elements oxygen and hydrogen (2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom). Oxygen and hydrogen are gases at room temperature, water is a liquid. Properties are changed when elements join to form compounds. Water in it's solid form is ice and it's gaseous form is water vapor or steam.

Authors and medical doctors Hidemitsu Hayashi, of the Water Institute, and Munenori Kawamura, of the Kyowa Medical Clinic published there work in the Advanced Functional Foods and Water for Prevention of Diseases research was presented at the Japanese Asssociation for Animal Cell Technology (JAACT) - 2000 FUKUOKA Symposium 4


Hidemitsu Hayashi's article Science of Water