Alkaline Mineral Water Health Effects
Collection of mineral water research:
Positive Influence of Nutritional Alkalinity on Bone Health
Wynn E, Krieg MA, Lanham-New SA, Burckhardt P., University Hospital (CHUV), 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Proc Nutrition Soc. 2010 Feb;69(1):166-73.
There is growing evidence that consumption of a Western diet is a risk factor for osteoporosis through excess acid supply, while fruits and vegetables balance the excess acidity, mostly by providing K-rich bicarbonate-rich foods. Western diets consumed by adults generate approximately 50-100 mEq acid/d; therefore, healthy adults consuming such a diet are at risk of chronic low-grade metabolic acidosis, which worsens with age as a result of declining kidney function. Bone buffers the excess acid by delivering cations and it is considered that with time an overstimulation of this process will lead to the dissolution of the bone mineral content and hence to reduced bone mass.
Intakes of K, Mg and fruit and vegetables have been associated with a higher alkaline status and a subsequent beneficial effect on bone health. In healthy male volunteers an acid-forming diet increases urinary Ca excretion by 74% and urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (C-telopeptide) excretion by 19% when compared with an alkali (base-forming) diet. Cross-sectional studies have shown that there is a correlation between the nutritional acid load and bone health measured by bone ultrasound or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Few studies have been undertaken in very elderly women (>75 years), whose osteoporosis risk is very pertinent. The EVAluation of Nutrients Intakes and Bone Ultra Sound Study has developed and validated (n 51) an FFQ for use in a very elderly Swiss population (mean age 80.4 (sd 2.99) years), which has shown intakes of key nutrients (energy, fat, carbohydrate, Ca, Mg, vitamin C, D and E) to be low in 401 subjects.
A subsequent study to assess net endogenous acid production (NEAP) and bone ultrasound results in 256 women aged > or = 75 years has shown that lower NEAP (P=0.023) and higher K intake (P=0.033) are correlated with higher bone ultrasound results.
High acid load may be an important additional risk factor that may be particularly relevant in very elderly patients with an already-high fracture risk. The latter study adds to knowledge by confirming a positive link between dietary alkalinity and bone health indices in the very elderly. In a further study to complement these findings it has also been shown in a group of thirty young women that in Ca sufficiency an acid Ca-rich water has no effect on bone resorption, while an alkaline bicarbonate-rich water leads to a decrease in both serum parathyroid hormone and serum C-telopeptide. Further investigations need to be undertaken to study whether these positive effects on bone loss are maintained over long-term treatment. Mineral-water consumption could be an easy and inexpensive way of helping to prevent osteoporosis and could be of major interest for long-term prevention of bone loss. PMID:19954569
Consumption of a high calcium mineral water lowers biochemical indices of bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with low calcium intake.
Meunier PJ, Jenvrin C, Munoz F, de la Gueronnière V, Garnero P, Menz M.Faculty of Medicine RTH, Laennec INSERM Unit 403, rue G. Paradin, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Oct;16(10):1203-9. Epub 2005 Mar 3.
Many postmenopausal women have a calcium intake far below the recommended amount and, in addition to attempting to improve their diet, need a calcium supplement. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of the consumption of a high calcium mineral water (HCaMW) on biochemical indices of bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with low Ca intake.
A 6-month randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was designed to assess the effects of a daily consumption of 1 liter of a HCaMW (596 mg Ca/l) on serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and biochemical markers of bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with a dietary Ca intake lower than 700 mg/day. The placebo group drank 1 liter of a mineral water with a low calcium content (10 mg/l). One hundred eighty healthy women were recruited (mean age: 70.1+/-4.0 years); 152 completed the 6-month trial. The changes from baseline of biochemical indices after 6 months consisted of a significant 14.1% decrease of serum PTH, osteocalcin (-8.6%), bone alkaline phosphatase (-11.5%), serum (-16.3%) and urine (-13.0%) type-1 collagen C-telopeptide in the HCaMW group compared to the placebo group, where all biochemical indices increased after 6 months. The additive effect of a small vitamin D supplement (400 iu/day) was also evaluated. In women receiving vitamin D in addition to HCaMW, the decrease in bone indices was not found to be greater than in women drinking only the HCaMW.
A daily supplement of 596 mg of Ca through the consumption of 1 liter of High Calcium Mineral Water was able to lower serum PTH and the indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with a low Ca intake. This could contribute to the repair of calcium deficiency and to the reduction of age-related bone loss in this population.PMID:15744450
Alkaline Mineral Water - Bone Resorption
Mineral water as a source of dietary calcium: acute effects on parathyroid function and bone resorption in young men. PMID 10731509
The effect of the alkali load of mineral water on bone metabolism: interventional studies.
Adverse effects on bone turnover with low-calcium diets can be prevented by giving high-calcium, alkaline drinking water. PMID 8869414
Cell hydration as the primary factor in carcinogenesis: A unifying concept. PMID 16271440
Mineral water intake reduces blood pressure among subjects with low urinary magnesium and calcium levels.
Rylander R, Arnaud MJ.Department of Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden. BMC Public Health. 2004 Nov 30;4:56.
BACKGROUND: Several previous epidemiological studies have shown a relation between drinking water quality and death in cardiovascular disease whereas others have not found such a relationship. An intervention study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of water with added magnesium and natural mineral water on blood pressure.
METHODS: A group of 70 subjects with borderline hypertension was recruited and consumed 1) a water low in minerals, 2) magnesium enriched water or 3) natural mineral water, in a random, double blind fashion during four weeks.
RESULTS: Among persons with an initial low excretion of magnesium or calcium in the urine, the urinary excretion of magnesium was increased in the groups consuming the two waters containing magnesium after 4 weeks. A significant decrease in blood pressure was found in the group consuming mineral water at 2 and 4 weeks.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that minerals taken in water are significant for the body burden and that an intake of mineral water among persons with a low urinary excretion of magnesium or calcium may decrease the blood pressure. Further studies should investigate the extent of mineral deficiency in different populations and the efficiency of different vehicles for supplying minerals, particularly magnesium and calcium.PMID:15571635
Natural Spring Water: High pH and Electrically Charged
|Alkaline Water Sources||pH||ORP|
|Evamor Artesian Water||8.8||-57|
|Waimauku Aquifer, Auckland, NewZealand||10|
|Jenolan Caves, Blue Mountains, Australia||8.26|
|Fiji Natural Artesian Water, Fiji||7.5|
|Crystal Falls Springs, MI, USA||7.6|
|Tauranga Natural Hot Springs||8.2||-155|
|Trinity Springs, Idaho, USA||9||-200|
|Coconino Aquifer, Arizona, USA||8||-125|
|Middle & Southwest Aquifers, United States||8+|
|Alkaline Ionized Tap Water||9-10||-500|
Nature's Electrostatic Water
Steams, rivers, and aquafiers, churn and channel under pressure, yet water tends to stick to non-conductive surfaces such as rocks and fissures. The stretching force between the sticking and flowing molecules produce a natural electrostatic charge.
Electricity From Water Kelvin Electrostatic Generator
pH 7 is neutral. Above 7 is alkaline. Below 7 is acidic.
ORP is expressed in milli-volts. Verification of values are on-going.
Red Indicates Naturally Occuring "High pH" Areas
Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Water and Bottled Waters
Azoulay A, Garzon P, Eisenberg MJ., Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
OBJECTIVES: Because of growing concern that constituents of drinking water may have adverse health effects, consumption of tap water in North America has decreased and consumption of bottled water has increased. Our objectives were to 1) determine whether North American tap water contains clinically important levels of calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and sodium (Na+) and 2) determine whether differences in mineral content of tap water and commercially available bottled waters are clinically important.
DESIGN: We obtained mineral analysis reports from municipal water authorities of 21 major North American cities. Mineral content of tap water was compared with published data regarding commercially available bottled waters and with dietary reference intakes (DRIs).
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mineral levels varied among tap water sources in North America and among bottled waters. European bottled waters generally contained higher mineral levels than North American tap water sources and North American bottled waters. For half of the tap water sources we examined, adults may fulfill between 8% and 16% of their Ca2+ DRI and between 6% and 31% of their Mg2+ DRI by drinking 2 liters per day. One liter of most moderate mineralization European bottled waters contained between 20% and 58% of the Ca2+ DRI and between 16% and 41% of the Mg2+ DRI in adults.
High mineralization bottled waters often contained up to half of the maximum recommended daily intake of Na+.
CONCLUSION: Drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals. Physicians should encourage patients to check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs. PMID:11318912
Heartspring Staff are assistants of board reviewed doctors that are medical editors, authors, and reviewers, providing oversight for Heartspring.net. This article is currently undergoing doctor reveiw.
Bone Health Topics
Calcium myths, bone loss prevention, and the health effects of mineral water.