Plastic Safety Considerations
Researchers have been working to understand exposure to plastic by-products via ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. A large number of plastic consumer products are known to contain hazardous endocrine disrupters:
Plastic Metabolites - Current Research
Plastic phthalates can lead to altered T hormone levels, sperm DNA damage, and sperm cell death. 
Phthalates present in bleached white plastic containers are adsorbed by milk proteins. 
Phthalate were positively associated with depression risks in a representative sample of the U.S. elderly population. 
Soft PVC Plasticizers:
- Food packaging
- Building supplies
- Wall coverings
- Pharmaceutical drugs
- Personal care products
- Adhesives (Frederiksen et al., 2007; Wittassek et al., 2011).
Phthalates can be released from products and exposure may occur in humans through food, dust, air and direct use of personal care products. (Janjua et al., 2008; Wittassek and Angerer, 2008; Wormuth et al., 2006)
- Personal care products
- Preservatives in confectionary foods, dried meat
"The maximum level of parabens in cosmetics restricted by the European Cosmetic Directive to 0.4% (single ester) and 0.8% (mixture of esters) (EC, 2009)."
Antimicrobial Agent in Consumer Products:
- Mouth washes
- Shower gels
- Cleaning products
- Toys (Bedoux et al., 2012)
"Triclosan is approved by the European Cosmetic Directive for use in cosmetic products in concentrations up to 0.3% (EC, 2009), but is no longer permitted for use in food contact materials (EC, 2010)."
Phthalates are used as solvents and fixatives in perfumes. Phthalates esters were found in fragrances beyond accepted threshold limits. 
- Phthalate exposure in association with serum hormone levels, sperm DNA damage and spermatozoa apoptosis: A cross-sectional study in China. Environmental Research. 2015 Dec PMID:26654563
- Determination of free and total phthalates in commercial whole milk products in different packaging materials by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Dairy Science. 2015 Dec PMID:26454292
- Urinary phthalate metabolites and depression in an elderly population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012. Environmental Research. 2015 Nov PMID:26624239
- Large Effects From Small Exposures - Effects of Bisphenol A on Human Exposure. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun PMID:16690810
- BPA exposure during in vitro oocyte maturation results in dose-dependent alterations to embryo development rates, apoptosis rate, sex ratio and gene expression. Reproductive Toxicology. 2015 Dec PMID:26686065
- Screening of phthalate esters in 47 branded perfumes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 2015 Aug 28. PMID:26310707
Author Jason Jensen is a licensed naturopathic medical physician in the state of Arizona.
Author Wendy Wells is a licensed naturopath physician in the state of Arizona.
Pregnancy Health Topics
Conception signs, essential nutrition, and natural fertility enhancement.