Growing Healthy Strawberries

By Heartspring Staff . A collection of strawberry cultivation topics.

Effect of Different Cultural Systems on Antioxidant Capacity, Phenolic Content, and Fruit Quality of Strawberries

Shiow Y. Wang, Patricia Millner. Genetic Improvement of Fruits & Vegetables Laboratory, Sustainable Agricultural Systems Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.

The effect of cultivation practices for controlling strawberry black root rot (BRR) on fruit quality, antioxidant capacity, and flavonoid content in two strawberry cultivars Allstar and Chandler (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) was evaluated. Strawberry fruits used in this study were from plants grown in soils which had a prior history of BRR and red stele, and had not been fumigated during the seven years prior to the study. Results from this study showed that fruit from plants grown in compost socks had significantly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), flavonoids, anthocyanins, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acid (TA), fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, and citric acid than fruit produced in the black plastic mulch or matted row systems. Cultivar Chandler surpassed cv. Allstar in sugar content, acid content, and flavonoid content regardless of preplanting vinegar drenching and various culture treatments. However, preplanting vinegar treatment increased cyanidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins but decreased sugar content in fruits of both cultivars. DOI:10.1021/jf9020575

Compost as a soil supplement increases the level of antioxidant compounds and oxygen radical absorbance capacity in strawberries

Wang SY, Lin HS. Fruit Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350, USA.

Compost as a soil supplement significantly enhanced levels of ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) and ratios of AsA/dehydroascorbic acid (DHAsA) and GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in fruit of two strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars, Allstar and Honeoye. The peroxyl radical (ROO(*)) as well as the superoxide radical (O(2)(*)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxyl radical (OH(*)), and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) absorbance capacity in strawberries increased significantly with increasing fertilizer strength and compost use. The planting medium (compost) x fertilizer interaction for phenolics and flavonoids was significant. Fruit from plants grown in full-strength fertilizer with 50% soil plus 50% compost and 100% compost yielded fruit with the highest levels of phenolics, flavonol, and anthocyanin content. A positive relationship between antioxidant activities and contents of AsA and GSH and ratios of AsA/DHAsA and GSH/GSSG existed in fruit of both strawberry cultivars. Correlation coefficients for the content of antioxidant components versus antioxidant activity [against ROO(*), O(2)(*)(-), H(2)O(2), OH(*), or (1)O(2)] ranged from r( )()= 0.7706 for H(2)O(2) versus GSH/GSSH in cv. Allstar to r = 0.9832 for O(2)(*)(-) versus total flavonoids in cv. Allstar. PMID:14582984

Compost as a Soil Supplement Increases the Level of Antioxidant Compounds and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity in Strawberries

Shiow Y. Wang* and Hsin-Shan Lin, Fruit Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350

Compost as a soil supplement significantly enhanced levels of ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) and ratios of AsA/dehydroascorbic acid (DHAsA) and GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in fruit of two strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cultivars, Allstar and Honeoye. The peroxyl radical (ROO•) as well as the superoxide radical (O2•-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (OH•), and singlet oxygen (1O2) absorbance capacity in strawberries increased significantly with increasing fertilizer strength and compost use. The planting medium (compost) × fertilizer interaction for phenolics and flavonoids was significant. Fruit from plants grown in full-strength fertilizer with 50% soil plus 50% compost and 100% compost yielded fruit with the highest levels of phenolics, flavonol, and anthocyanin content. A positive relationship between antioxidant activities and contents of AsA and GSH and ratios of AsA/DHAsA and GSH/GSSG existed in fruit of both strawberry cultivars. Correlation coefficients for the content of antioxidant components versus antioxidant activity [against ROO•, O2•-, H2O2, OH•, or 1O2] ranged from r = 0.7706 for H2O2 versus GSH/GSSH in cv. Allstar to r = 0.9832 for O2•- versus total flavonoids in cv. Allstar.

Effect of plant growth temperature on antioxidant capacity in strawberry

Wang SY, Zheng W., Fruit Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland

The influence of four day/night growing temperature combinations (18/12, 25/12, 25/22, and 30/22 degrees C) on phenolic acid, flavonol, and anthocyanin content and their antioxidant activities against peroxyl radicals (ROO(*)), superoxide radicals (O(2)(*)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxyl radicals (OH(*)), and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) in fruit juice of Earliglow and Kent strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars was studied. Pelargonidin-based anthocyanins such as pelargonidin 3-glucoside (291.3-945.1 microg/g fresh wt.), pelargonidin 3-rutinoside (24.7-50.9 microg/g fresh wt.), and pelargonidin 3-glucoside-succinate (62.2-244.0 microg/g fresh wt.) were the predominant anthocyanins in strawberry fruit juice. The content of cyanidin-based anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside-succinate, was much lower than that of pelargonidin-based anthocyanins. Strawberry growth in high temperature conditions significantly enhanced the content of p-coumaroylglucose, dihydroflavonol, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-glucuronide, kaempferol 3-glucoside, kaempferol 3-glucuronide, cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside-succinate, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside-succinate in strawberry juice. Plants grown in the cool day and cool night temperature (18/12 degrees C) generally had the lowest phenolic acid, flavonols, and anthocyanins. An increase in night temperature from 12 to 22 degrees C, with the day temperature kept constant at 25 degrees C, resulted in a significant increase in phenolic acid, flavonols, and anthocyanins. These conditions also resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant capacity. The highest day/night temperature (30/22 degrees C) yielded fruit with the most phenolic content as well as ROO(*), O(2)(*)(-), H(2)O(2), OH(*), and (1)O(2) radical absorbance capacity. Fruit of Kent cv. strawberry had higher values of phenolic acid, flavonols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacities than fruit of Earliglow cv. strawberry under all temperature regimes. PMID:11600054

Potential impact of strawberries on human health: a review of the science

Hannum SM., Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, USA.

Epidemiological studies have noted a consistent association between The consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables and a lower risk for chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease. There is accumulating evidence that much of the health-promoting potential of these plant foods may come from phytochemicals, bioactive compounds not designated as traditional nutrients. In strawberries, the most abundant of these are ellagic acid, and certain flavonoids: anthocyanin, catechin, quercetin and kaempferol. These compounds in strawberries have potent antioxidant power. Antioxidants help lower risk of cardiovascular events by inhibition of LDL-cholesterol oxidation, promotion of plaque stability, improved vascular endothelial function, and decreased tendency for thrombosis. Furthermore, strawberry extracts have been shown to inhibit COX enzymes in vitro, which would modulate the inflammatory process. Individual compounds in strawberries have demonstrated anticancer activity in several different experimental systems, blocking initiation of carcinogenesis, and suppressing progression and proliferation of tumors. Preliminary animal studies have indicated that diets rich in strawberries may also have the potential to provide benefits to the aging brain. PMID:15077879

Isolation and identification of strawberry phenolics with antioxidant and human cancer cell antiproliferative properties

J Agricultural Food Chemistry. 2008 Feb Zhang Y, Seeram NP, Lee R, Feng L, Heber D. Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

Studies suggest that consumption of berry fruits, including strawberries Fragaria x ananassa Duch., may have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases such as cancer. Berries contain multiple phenolic compounds, which are thought to contribute to their biological properties. Comprehensive profiling of phenolics from strawberries was previously reported using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) detection. The current study reports the isolation and structural characterization of 10 phenolic compounds from strawberry extracts using a combination of Amberlite XAD16-resin and C18 columns, HPLC-UV, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy methods. The phenolics were cyanidin-3-glucoside ( 1), pelargonidin (2), pelargonidin-3-glucoside (3), pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (4), kaempferol (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol-3-(6'-coumaroyl)glucoside) (7), 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl-acrylic acid (8), glucose ester of ( E)- p-coumaric acid (9), and ellagic acid . Strawberry crude extracts and purified compounds 1-10 were evaluated for antioxidant and human cancer cell antiproliferative activities by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and luminescent ATP cell viability assays, respectively. Among the pure compounds, the anthocyanins 1 (7156 microM Trolox/mg), 2 (4922 microM Trolox/mg), and 4 (5514 microM Trolox/mg) were the most potent antioxidants.

"Crude extracts and pure compounds inhibited the growth of human oral, colon, and prostate cancer cells with different sensitivities observed between cell lines."

This study adds to the growing body of data supporting the bioactivities of berry fruit phenolics and their potential impact on human health. PMID:18211028

Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of strawberry jams

Da Silva Pinto M, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI. Laboratório de Química, Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular de Alimentos, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Strawberries represent the main source of ellagic acid derivatives in the Brazilian diet. They are also good sources of flavonoids, mainly anthocyanins, and phenolic acids, to which many beneficial effects have been attributed. However, as the fruit is not available all the year, the objective of this work was to determine whether the jams could also represent a good source of bioactive compounds. In the current study, five different commercially available strawberry jams were characterized in relation to flavonoids, total phenolics, free and total ellagic acid contents, and antioxidant capacity. Anthocyanins were detected only in two jams at very low content. Kaempferol glycosides were the main flavonoids present (from 0.38 to 1.05 mg/100 g fresh weight, FW), while quercetin glycosides were present in the range 0.14-1.20 mg/100 g FW. Free and total ellagic acid content ranged from 0.4 to 2.9 mg/100 g FW, and from 17.0 to 29.5 mg/100 g FW, respectively. Total phenolics varied from 58 to 136 mg/100 g FW, and the antioxidant capacity from 0.55 to 0.76 mumol BHT (Butylhydroxytoluene) equivalents/g FW. Overall, results indicated that jams can also represent a good source of antioxidant compounds, although compared to the fruit important losses seem to occur. PMID:17701363

Effect of ascorbic acid and dehydration on concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins, and color in fruits

Rababah TM, Ereifej KI, Howard L., Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan.

The purpose of this investigation was to report on the total phenolics, anthocyanins, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of strawberry, peach, and apple, the influence of dehydration and ascorbic acid treatments on the levels of these compounds, and the effect of these treatments on fruit color. Results showed that fresh strawberry had the highest levels for total phenolics [5317.9 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents (CAE)/kg], whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peach (3392.1 and 1973.1 mg of CAE/kg, respectively), and for anthocyanins (138.8 mg/kg), whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peaches (11.0 and 18.9 mg/kg, respectively; fresh strawberry had an ORAC value of 62.9 mM/kg Trolox equivalents. The fresh apple and peach were found to have ORAC values of 14.7 and 11.4 mM/kg of Trolox equivalents, respectively. The color values indicated that the addition of 0.1% ascorbic acid increased the lightness (L) and decreased the redness (a) and yellowness (b) color values of fresh strawberry, peach, and apple, sliced samples, and the puree made from them. Also, results showed that dehydration is a good method to keep the concentrations of total phenolics and anthocyanins and ORAC values at high levels. PMID:15913308

Effect of drying methods with the application of vacuum microwaves on the bioactive compounds, color, and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits

Wojdy A, Figiel A, Oszmiaski J., Department of Fruit and Vegetable Technology, Wrocaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 25 Norwida Street, 50-375 Wroc?aw, Poland.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of vacuum-microwave drying (240, 360, and 480 W) in the production process of dehydrated strawberry and to compare and contrast the quality of these dehydrated strawberries in terms of their polyphenol compounds, concentration of some heat liable components, and color to that of freeze-dried, convective, and vacuum-dried strawberry. Thus, the effect of vacuum-microwave drying and other drying methods on the antioxidant activity of berries was evaluated. Whole fresh and dried fruits were assessed for phenolics (anthocyanins, flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity (all parameters were calculated on a dry matter basis). Analysis of data shows that ellagic acid and flavanol changes were affected by drying techniques and cultivar. Drying destroyed anthocyanins, flavanols, and ascorbic acid, and there was a significant decrease in antioxidant activity. The most striking result was that conventional and vacuum drying decreased antioxidant activity in both cultivars, whereas contradictory results were found for vacuum-microwave processed strawberry. This study has demonstrated that vacuum-microwave drying, especially at 240 W, can produce high-quality products, with the additional advantage of reduced processing times, compared to other processes such as freeze-drying. PMID:19170638

Effect of freezing and storage on the phenolics, ellagitannins, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of red raspberries

Mullen W, Stewart AJ, Lean ME, Gardner P, Duthie GG, Crozier A. Plant Products and Human Nutrition Group, Graham Kerr Building, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Scottish-grown red raspberries are a rich source of vitamin C and phenolics, most notably, the anthocyanins cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside), and cyanidin-3-glucoside, and two ellagitannins, sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C, which are present together with trace levels of flavonols, ellagic acid, and hydroxycinnamates. The antioxidant capacity of the fresh fruit and the levels of vitamin C and phenolics were not affected by freezing. When fruit were stored at 4 degrees C for 3 days and then at 18 degrees C for 24 h, mimicking the route fresh fruit takes after harvest to the supermarket and onto the consumer's table, anthocyanin levels were unaffected while vitamin C levels declined and those of elligitannins increased, and overall, there was no effect on the antioxidant capacity of the fruit. It is concluded, therefore, that freshly picked, fresh commercial, and frozen raspberries all contain similar levels of phytochemicals and antioxidants per serving. PMID:12188629

Resveratrol content in strawberry fruit is affected by preharvest conditions

Wang SY, Chen CT, Wang CY, Chen P., Genetic Improvement of Fruits and Vegetables Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350, USA.

This study investigated the occurrence of resveratrol in Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and the effect of preharvest conditions on resveratrol content. Both cis- and trans-resveratrol were detected in strawberry achenes (seeds) and pulp (receptacle tissue). Resveratrol was found to be higher in achenes than in fruit pulp. The levels of resveratrol were affected by genotype variations, fruit maturation, cultural practices, and environmental conditions. High growing temperature (25 and 30 degrees C) or enriched CO 2 in the atmosphere significantly enhanced resveratrol content of strawberries. Advancing maturation also increased resveratrol content. The mature pulp and achenes contained higher amounts of resveratrol than the immature fruit. Adding compost as a soil supplement or preharvest application of methyl jasmonate (MJ) also significantly enhanced the level of resveratrol in strawberry fruit. Among the plants grown in hill plasticulture, fruits of 'Ovation (B28)', 'Mohawwk', 'Earliglow', and 'B35' had higher amounts of resveratrol than fruits of other genotypes. 'Ovation' contained the highest amount of resveratrol among strawberries grown in matted row, whereas 'Latestar' contained the least. Ten of 14 tested genotypes (all except 'Allstar', 'Delmarvel', 'Northeaster', and 'MEUS 8') had higher amounts of resveratrol when grown in hill plasticulture compared to matted row. PMID:17803264

Antioxidant levels and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in vitro by extracts from organically and conventionally cultivated strawberries

Olsson ME, Andersson CS, Oredsson S, Berglund RH, Gustavsson KE.

Department of Crop Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden. The effects of extracts from five cultivars of strawberries on the proliferation of colon cancer cells HT29 and breast cancer cells MCF-7 were investigated, and possible correlations with the levels of several antioxidants were analyzed. In addition, the effects of organic cultivation compared to conventional cultivation on the content of antioxidants in the strawberries and strawberry extracts on the cancer cell proliferation were investigated. The ratio of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate was significantly higher in the organically cultivated strawberries. The strawberry extracts decreased the proliferation of both HT29 cells and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent way. The inhibitory effect for the highest concentration of the extracts was in the range of 41-63% (average 53%) inhibition compared to controls for the HT29 cells and 26-56% (average 43%) for MCF-7 cells. The extracts from organically grown strawberries had a higher antiproliferative activity for both cell types at the highest concentration than the conventionally grown, and this might indicate a higher content of secondary metabolites with anticarcinogenic properties in the organically grown strawberries. For HT29 cells, there was a negative correlation at the highest extract concentration between the content of ascorbate or vitamin C and cancer cell proliferation, whereas for MCF-7 cells, a high ratio of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate correlated with a higher inhibition of cell proliferation at the second highest concentration. The significance of the effect of ascorbate on cancer cell proliferation might lie in a synergistic action with other compounds. PMID:16478244

Strawberry and its anthocyanins reduce oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells

Heo HJ, Lee CY., Department of Food Science and Technology, Cornell University, Geneva, New York 14456, USA.

Because strawberries are known to contain higher concentrations of phytochemicals and have higher antioxidant capacity among common fruits, their neuroprotective activity was tested in vitro on PC12 cells treated with H2O2. Their protective effect and antioxidant capacity were also compared with those of banana and orange, which are the fresh fruits consumed at highest levels in the United States. The cell viability test using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay showed that strawberry phenolics significantly reduced oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity. Because oxidative stress is also known to increase neuronal cell membrane breakdown, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and trypan blue exclusion assays were also performed. Strawberry showed the highest cell protective effects among the samples. The overall relative neuronal cell protective activity of three fruits by three tests followed the decreasing order strawberry > banana > orange. The protective effects appeared to be due to the higher phenolic contents including anthocyanins, and anthocyanins in strawberries seemed to be the major contributors. PMID:15769124

Fruit polyphenolics and brain aging: nutritional interventions targeting age-related neuronal and behavioral deficits

Galli RL, Shukitt-Hale B, Youdim KA, Joseph JA., USDA-ARS, HNRCA at Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

Nutritional interventions, in this case, increasing dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, can retard and even reverse age-related declines in brain function and in cognitive and motor performance in rats. Our lab has shown that as Fischer 344 rats age their brains are increasingly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Dietary supplementation with fruit or vegetable extracts high in antioxidants (e.g., blueberry, BB, spinach, respectively) can decrease this vulnerability to oxidative stress as assessed in vivo by examining reductions in neuronal signaling and behavioral deficits and in vitro via H2O2-induced decrements in striatal synaptosomal calcium buffering. Examinations have also revealed that BB supplementations are effective in antagonizing other age-related changes in brain and behavior, as well as decreasing indices of inflammation and oxidative stress in gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles. In ongoing studies we are attempting to determine the most effective BB polyphenolic components. To date, the anthocyanins show the most efficacy in penetrating the cell membrane and in providing antioxidant protection. In sum, our results indicate that increasing dietary intake of fruits and vegetables high in antioxidant activity may be an important component of a healthy living strategy designed to maximize neuronal and cognitive functioning into old age. PMID:11976192

Inhibition of suicidal erythrocyte (blood cell) death by resveratrol. (resveratrol is a bioacitve molecule in strawberries)

Qadri SM, Föller M, Lang F., Department of Physiology, Eberhard-Karls-University of Tübingen, Gmelinstrasse 5, Tübingen, Germany.

AIMS: Pleiotropic effects of resveratrol include antioxidant activity and inhibition of cyclooxygenase with decrease of PGE(2) formation. In erythrocytes oxidation and PGE(2) activate Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels. The Ca(2+)-entry leads to activation of Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels with subsequent cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine exposure are hallmarks of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis. Eryptotic cells adhere to the vascular wall thus compromising microcirculation and are cleared from circulating blood thus leading to anemia. The present experiments explored whether resveratrol influences eryptosis. MAIN METHODS: Erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure was identified by annexin V-binding, cell volume estimated from forward scatter and cytosolic Ca(2+) activity determined utilizing Fluo3 fluorescence in FACS analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Energy depletion (48 h glucose removal) significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence and annexin V-binding and decreased forward scatter, effects significantly blunted by resveratrol (>/=5 microM). Moreover, oxidative stress (30 min 0.3 mM tert-butylhydroperoxide) and isoosmotic cell shrinkage (48 h replacement of extracellular chloride by gluconate) similarly triggered eryptosis, effects again significantly blunted in the presence of resveratrol. SIGNIFICANCE: Resveratrol is a potent inhibitor of suicidal erythrocyte death during energy depletion, oxidative stress and isoosmotic cell shrinkage. The nutrient could thus counteract anemia and impairment of microcirculation under conditions with excessive eryptosis.

Functionality of bioactive compounds in Brazilian strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars: evaluation of hyperglycemia and hypertension potential using in vitro models

da Silva Pinto M, Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI, Shetty K., Laboratório de Química, Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular de Alimentos, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, FCF, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 580, Bloco 14, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Fruits of seven fully ripened strawberry cultivars grown in Brazil (Dover, Camp Dover, Camarosa, Sweet Charlie, Toyonoka, Oso Grande, and Piedade) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on DPPH radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potentially managing hyperglycemia and hypertension. The total phenolics content ranged from 966 to 1571 microg of gallic acid/g of fruit fresh weight for Toyonoka and Dover, respectively. No correlation was found between total phenolics and antioxidant activity. The major phenolic compounds in aqueous extracts of strawberries were ellagic acid, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid. Strawberries had high alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. However, alpha-amylase inhibitory activity was very low in all cultivars. This suggested that strawberries could be considered as a potential dietary source with anti-hyperglycemic potential. The evaluated cultivars had no significant ACE inhibitory activity, reflecting low anti-hypertensive potential. PMID:18522404

Enhancing antioxidant, antiproliferation, and free-radical scavenging activities in strawberries with essential oils

Wang CY, Wang SY, Yin JJ, Parry J, Yu LL., Produce Quality and Safety Laboratory and Fruit Laboratory, U. S. Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, Maryland. ChienYi.

Several natural antimicrobial compounds derived from essential oils of plants were investigated for their efficacies in inhibiting decay and extending the shelf life of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassas Duch.). The severity of decay in strawberries stored at 10 degrees C was significantly reduced by treatment with thymol. Treatments with menthol or eugenol also suppressed the fungal growth, but to a lesser extent. All of these three natural antimicrobial compounds extended shelf life of strawberries as compared to the control. Strawberries treated with thymol, menthol, or eugenol also maintained better fruit quality with higher levels of sugars, organic acids, phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the untreated fruits. The free-radical scavenging properties of strawberry fruit were evaluated against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH(.)), hydroxyl (HO(.)), and superoxide radicals (O2(.-)) using electron spin resonance measurements. Higher radical scavenging capacities were found against DPPH(.) and HO(.) in all treated fruit, particularly in berries treated with thymol, compared to those in the control groups. In addition, strawberry extracts were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities using HT-29 colon cancer cells. Extracts from all treated fruit exhibited significantly stronger inhibition on HT-29 cell proliferation than those from the control fruit. These data provide evidence that, in addition to possessing antimicrobial activity, the essential oils also increase free-radical scavenging capacity and antiproliferative activity in fruit and, in turn, enhance the resistance of fruit tissues to deterioration and spoilage. PMID:17636936

Breeding strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duch) to increase fruit nutritional quality

Capocasa F, Diamanti J, Tulipani S, Battino M, Mezzetti B., Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali e delle Produzioni Vegetali, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italia.

In the last few years the nutritional value of fruit has been widely studied and requested by the consumers, especially for protection against cardiovascular events, cancer and others as well as for the general health benefits it can provide. These benefits can be ascribed mainly to the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) of fruit which is determined by a complex combination of bioactive compounds, generally related to specific characteristics of the genotype and of its interaction with the environment. Strawberry breeding programs are currently used to acquire new varieties improved for specific agronomic (Yield and Size), qualitative (Firmness, Sugars Content and Acidity) and sensorial (Colour and Aroma) characteristics, all combined to increased disease resistance and plant adaptability. Nowadays, besides to all these parameters is necessary to look for the specific bioactive components well known for their effect on human health. This aspect is now highly requested by the consumer. By testing different commercial strawberry varieties, a wide difference among their production and fruit quality, mostly related to their adaptability to the local evaluation conditions, is generally detected. Regarding their nutritional values, only few varieties nowadays differ for their higher phenol content and total antioxidant capacity. By taking into account this knowledge different breeding programs specifically addressed to increase fruit nutritional value, have been started. A first approach is based on the use of inter-specific crosses within wild and cultivated genotypes, so to increase variability for these characters, while the second by considering the intra-specific crosses within cultivars already known for their agronomic behavior and good quality performance. Herewith, we report on the major aspects related to breeding program aimed to increase strawberry fruit nutritional quality and what we can expect for the improvement of consumer acceptability of this fruit. PMID:19706973

Assessment of the differences in the phenolic composition of five strawberry cultivars (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) grown in two different soilless systems

Hernanz D, Recamales AF, Meléndez-Martínez AJ, González-Miret ML, Heredia FJ., Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Experimental Science, University of Huelva, Spain.

The phenolics from different strawberry cultivars (Aromas, Camarosa, Diamante, Medina, and Ventana) cultivated in two different soilless systems (with and without recycling nutrient solution) were quantified to assess differences in their profiles as a function of both the variety and the cultivation system. Considering groups of phenols, it was found that either anthocyanins (including pelargonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-acetylglucoside, and two unidentified pelargonidin derivatives) or phenolic acids (including caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, and ellagic acid) were quantitatively more important than those of flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol); the ranges of values were 78.81-198.88, 49.77-128.37, and 12.85-43.04 microg/g, respectively. Considering individual compounds and after applying relevant pattern recognition techniques, it was concluded that the contents of cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, and pelargonidin-3-glucoside were the most appropriate variables to discriminate among varieties, whereas those of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and pelargonidin-derivative 1 were the most appropriate to discriminate between cultivation systems. The first factor of PCA was mainly linked to anthocyanins and quercetin, whereas the second principal component (PC) was related to kaempferol and p-coumaric acid. PMID:17279770

Antioxidants, phenolic compounds, and nutritional quality of different strawberry genotypes

Tulipani S, Mezzetti B, Capocasa F, Bompadre S, Beekwilder J, de Vos CH, Capanoglu E, Bovy A, Battino M., Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Environmental and Crop Science (SAPROV), Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy.

Strawberry contains high levels of micronutrients and phytochemical compounds. These exhibit functional roles in plant growth and metabolism and are also essential for the nutritional and organoleptic qualities of the fruit. The aim of the present work was to better characterize the phytochemical and antioxidant profiles of the fruit of nine different genotypes of strawberry, by measuring the total flavonoid, anthocyanin, vitamin C, and folate contents. Cultivar effects on the total antioxidant capacities of strawberries were also tested. In addition, the individual contribution of the main antioxidant compounds was assessed by HPLC separation coupled to an online postcolumn antioxidant detection system. This study showed the important role played by the genetic background on the chemical and antioxidant profiles of strawberry fruits. Significant differences were found between genotypes for the total antioxidant capacity and for all tested classes of compounds. The HPLC analyses confirmed qualitative and quantitative variability in the antioxidant profiles. These studies show that differences exist among cultivars, applicable in dietary studies in human subjects. PMID:18211027

Antioxidants, low molecular weight carbohydrates, and total antioxidant capacity in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa): effects of cultivar, ripening, and storage

Olsson ME, Ekvall J, Gustavsson KE, Nilsson J, Pillai D, Sjöholm I, Svensson U, Akesson B, Nyman MG., Department of Crop Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.

Four cultivars of strawberries (Senga Sengana, BFr77111, Elsanta, and Honeoye) were studied for their content of antioxidants, total antioxidant capacity, and low molecular weight carbohydrates in relation to harvest year, ripening stage, and cold storage. For ascorbic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and total anti oxidative capacity, measured in both water-soluble and water-insoluble extracts, there was a 2-5-fold variation among cultivars. Unripe berries contained lower concentrations of chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid and also quercetin and kaempferol compared with riper berries. During cold storage for up to 3 days, relatively few changes in the concentration of the different antioxidants occurred. The concentrations of several investigated parameters were interrelated, for example, for ascorbic acid and water-soluble antioxidant capacity and for ellagic acid and water-insoluble antioxidant capacity. The dominating sugars in strawberries were fructose and glucose, but considerable amounts of sucrose were also present, and their contents varied among cultivars, giving a predicted glycemic index of approximately 81. Verbascose, raffinose, and stachyose were found in only minor amounts. The study shows that the concentration of a number of bioactive compounds in strawberries varied according to cultivar, ripening stage, and storage. This information should make it possible to select strawberries with an optimal content of bioactive compounds. PMID:15113146

List of Strawberry Cultivars


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