Electrolyzed Ionized Water Research
There are two types of water produced by a ionizer.
- Alkaline (Reduced) Water
- Acidic (Oxidizing) Water
Water that is charged by the electrolytic cell of an ionizer, has various names:
- Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) - Alkaline, or Acid
- Electrolytic Reduction Ion Water (ERI) - Alkaline, or Acid
- Electrolyzed Cathode Water (ECW) - Alkaline, Alkalized, Alkalization
- Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water (EOW)- Acidic water, Industrial applications
- Electrolyzed Anode Water (EAW) - Acidic
- Structured Water, Functional Water
- Dipole, Multipole Water, Kosmotrophes, Electrochemical, Electrolytic Redox, Layered Icosahedral Water, Tessellated, Declustered, Alkaline Water
Microwater, Ionized Water, Alkaline Antioxidant Water, Miracle Water, Kangen Water, Energy Water, Ion Water, Electrolyzer, Water Ionizer.
Below is a collection of research abstracts describing the physiological effects of both alkaline (reduced) water and acidic (oxidizing)water. Use your browser's back button to navigate the water ionizer research menu below.
Alkaline Ionized Water Research
- Postgraduate Symposium: Positive influence of nutritional alkalinity on bone health
- Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water.
- Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.
- The immunological effects of electrolyzed reduced water on the Echinostoma hortense infection in C57BL/6 mice.
- Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione.
- Protective mechanism of reduced water against alloxan-induced pancreatic beta-cell damage.
- Electrolyzed Reduced Water Supplemented with Platinum Nanoparticles Suppresses Promotion of Two-stage Cell Transformation.
- Preservative effect of electrolyzed reduced water on pancreatic beta-cell mass in diabetic db/db mice.
- Anti-diabetic effects of electrolyzed reduced water in streptozotocin-induced and genetic diabetic mice.
- Electrolyzed-reduced water reduced hemodialysis-induced erythrocyte impairment in end-stage renal disease patients.
- Reduced hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease patients by electrolyzed reduced water.
- Inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on tumor angiogenesis
- Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen & protects DNA from oxidative damage.
- Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein.
- The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects of reduced water produced by electrolysis.
- Use of ionized water in hypochlorhydria, achlorhydria, reduction of high blood pressure
- Electrolyzed-reduced water inhibits acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats.
- Use of ionized water for gynecological conditions
- Clinical improvements obtained from the uptake of Ionized Water
- Alkaline ionized water for abdominal complaints: Placebo controlled double blind tests
- Stimulationof anaerobic microflora in the human intestinal tract by electrolyzed reducing water
- Physiological effects of alkaline ionized water: intestinal fermentation
- Effects of calcium alkaline ionized water on formation and maintenance of osseous tissues
- Use of Ionized water in heart disease and toxins.
- Use of Ionized water in eczema.
- Use of Ionized water in allergies.
- Use of Ionized water in diabetes treatment.
Acidic Ionized Water - Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water Research
- Anti microbial interventions to reduce Salmonella species on poultry.
- Treatment of Escherichia coli inoculated alfalfa sprouts with electrolyzed oxidizing water.
- Inactivation of E. coli & Listeria on plastic kitchen cutting boards by electrolyzed oxidizing water.
- The bactericidal effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water on bacterial strains in hospital infections.
- Effect of electrolyzed water on wound healing.
- Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water on excised burn-wounds in rats.
- Decomposition of ethylene, a flower-senescence hormone, with electrolyzed anode water.
Alkaline Electrolyzed Reduced Water - Ionized Water
Proc Nutrition Soc. 2010 Feb;69(1):166-73. Epub 2009 Dec 3.
Postgraduate Symposium: Positive influence of nutritional alkalinity on bone health.
Wynn E, Krieg MA, Lanham-New SA, Burckhardt P. University Hospital (CHUV), 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.
There is growing evidence that consumption of a Western diet is a risk factor for osteoporosis through excess acid supply, while fruits and vegetables balance the excess acidity, mostly by providing K-rich bicarbonate-rich foods. Western diets consumed by adults generate approximately 50-100 mEq acid/d; therefore, healthy adults consuming such a diet are at risk of chronic low-grade metabolic acidosis, which worsens with age as a result of declining kidney function. Bone buffers the excess acid by delivering cations and it is considered that with time an overstimulation of this process will lead to the dissolution of the bone mineral content and hence to reduced bone mass. Intakes of K, Mg and fruit and vegetables have been associated with a higher alkaline status and a subsequent beneficial effect on bone health. In healthy male volunteers an acid-forming diet increases urinary Ca excretion by 74% and urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (C-telopeptide) excretion by 19% when compared with an alkali (base-forming) diet. Cross-sectional studies have shown that there is a correlation between the nutritional acid load and bone health measured by bone ultrasound or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Few studies have been undertaken in very elderly women (>75 years), whose osteoporosis risk is very pertinent. The EVAluation of Nutrients Intakes and Bone Ultra Sound Study has developed and validated (n 51) an FFQ for use in a very elderly Swiss population (mean age 80.4 (sd 2.99) years), which has shown intakes of key nutrients (energy, fat, carbohydrate, Ca, Mg, vitamin C, D and E) to be low in 401 subjects. A subsequent study to assess net endogenous acid production (NEAP) and bone ultrasound results in 256 women aged > or = 75 years has shown that lower NEAP (P=0.023) and higher K intake (P=0.033) are correlated with higher bone ultrasound results. High acid load may be an important additional risk factor that may be particularly relevant in very elderly patients with an already-high fracture risk. The latter study adds to knowledge by confirming a positive link between dietary alkalinity and bone health indices in the very elderly. In a further study to complement these findings it has also been shown in a group of thirty young women that in Ca sufficiency an acid Ca-rich water has no effect on bone resorption, while an alkaline bicarbonate-rich water leads to a decrease in both serum parathyroid hormone and serum C-telopeptide. Further investigations need to be undertaken to study whether these positive effects on bone loss are maintained over long-term treatment. Mineral-water consumption could be an easy and inexpensive way of helping to prevent osteoporosis and could be of major interest for long-term prevention of bone loss. PMID:19954569
Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water.
Heil DP. Journal of the Internation Society of Sports Nutrition, 2010 September 13;7(1):29.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The present study sought to determine whether The consumption of a mineral-rich alkalizingbottled water could improve both acid-base balance and hydration status in young healthy adults under free-living conditions. The mineral-rich alkalizing bottled water contains a naturally high mineral content along with Alka-PlexLiquidTM, a dissolved supplement that increases the mineral content and gives the water an alkalizing pH of 10.0. METHODS: Thirty-eight subjects were matched by gender and self-reported physical activity (SRPA, hrs/week) and then split into Control (12 women, 7 men; Mean+/-SD: 23+/-2 yrs; 7.2+/-3.6 hrs/week SRPA) and Experimental (13 women, 6 men; 22+/-2 yrs; 6.4+/-4.0 hrs/week SRPA) groups. The Control group consumed non-mineralized placebo bottled water over a 4-week period while the Experimental group consumed the placebo water during the 1st and 4th weeks and the mineral-rich alkalizing bottled water during the middle 2-week treatment period. Fingertip blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected three times each week for subsequent measures of blood and urine osmolality and pH, as well as total urine volume. Dependent variables were analyzed using multivariate repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc focused on evaluating changes over time within Control and Experimental groups (alpha = 0.05). RESULTS: There were no significant changes in any of the dependent variables for the Control group. The Experimental group, however, showed significant increases in both the blood and urine pH (6.23 to 7.07 and 7.52 to 7.69, respectively), a decreased blood and increased urine osmolality, and a decreased urine output (2.51 to 2.05 L/day), all during the second week of the treatment period (P<0.05). Further, these changes reversed for the Experimental group once subjects switched to the placebo water during the 4th week. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of mineral-rich alkalizing bottled water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine) and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the same period of time. These results indicate that the habitual consumption of mineral-rich alkalizing bottled water may be a valuable nutritional vector for influencing both acid-base balance and hydration status in healthy adults. PMID:20836884
Biomed Research. 2009 Oct;30(5):263-9.
Electrolyzed-reduced water inhibits acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Park SK, Qi XF, Song SB, Kim DH, Teng YC, Yoon YS, Kim KY, Li JH, Jin D, Lee KJ. Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon, Republic of Korea.
Ethanol consumption disturbs the balance between the pro- and anti-oxidant systems of the organism, leading to oxidative stress. Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) is widely used by people in East Asia for drinking purposes because of its therapeutic properties including scavenging effect of reactive oxygen species. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ERW on acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol concentration in serum of ERW-treated rats showed significant difference at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h respectively as compared with the rats treated with distilled water. Both alcohol dehydrogenase type 1 and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase related with oxidation of alcohol were significantly increased in liver tissue while the level of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum was markedly decreased 24 h after pre-oral administration of ERW. Moreover, oral administration of ERW significantly activated non-ezymatic (glutathione) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase) antioxidants in liver tissues compared with the control group. These results suggest that drinking ERW has an effect of alcohol detoxification by antioxidant mechanism and has potentiality for relief of ethanol-induced hangover symptoms. PMID:19887722
Food Chemistry Toxicology. 2009 Aug;47(8):2031-6. Epub 2009 May 27.
Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.
Tsai CF, Hsu YW, Chen WK, Chang WH, Yen CC, Ho YC, Lu FJ. Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan.
The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free-radical scavenging effect. PMID:19477216
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2009 Mar;32(3):456-62.
The immunological effects of electrolyzed reduced water on the Echinostoma hortense infection in C57BL/6 mice.
Lee KJ, Jin D, Chang BS, Teng YC, Kim DH. Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Gang Won, South Korea.
Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) is widely used for drinking by people in Asia. The purpose of this study was to examine the immunological effect of ERW on the immunity of animals by supplying ERW to C57BL/6 mice infected with Echinostoma hortense metacercariae. In the non-infected groups, interleukin (IL)-4 (p < 0.001), IL-5, IL-10, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and immunoglobulin (Ig) A expression of the group fed ERW (ERW group) increased in small intestine compared with the normal control group. In the case of infected groups, the group fed ERW (ERW+E. hortense group) showed the result that IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and Ig A expression increased, but IL-1beta and TNF-alpha (p < 0.001) decreased, and the number of goblet cells (p < 0.001) and helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) positive cells increased compared with the group without feeding ERW. However, adult worm recovery rate was markedly increased (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the expression of all the cytokines except IL-10 in spleen was mildly increased but not significant statistically, and there was no significant difference in the numerical changes of white blood cell (WBC). These results indicate that feeding ERW may have influence on the local immune response (Th-1 type cytokines such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) in the small intestine but not on the systemic immune response. PMID:19252295