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Plastic Safety Considerations

NMD, and NMD.

Researchers have been working to understand exposure to plastic by-products via ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. A large number of plastic consumer products are known to contain hazardous endocrine disrupters:

Plastic Metabolites, Current Research

Plastic phthalates can lead to altered T hormone levels, sperm DNA damage, and sperm cell death. [1]

Phthalates present in bleached white plastic containers are adsorbed by milk proteins. [2]

Phthalate were positively associated with depression risks in a representative sample of the U.S. elderly population. [3]

Phthalate Sources

Soft PVC Plasticizers:

Non-Plastic Products:

Phthalates can be released from products and exposure may occur in humans through food, dust, air and direct use of personal care products. (Janjua et al., 2008; Wittassek and Angerer, 2008; Wormuth et al., 2006)


Antimicrobial Preservatives:

"The maximum level of parabens in cosmetics restricted by the European Cosmetic Directive to 0.4% (single ester) and 0.8% (mixture of esters) (EC, 2009)."


Antimicrobial Agent in Consumer Products:

"Triclosan is approved by the European Cosmetic Directive for use in cosmetic products in concentrations up to 0.3% (EC, 2009), but is no longer permitted for use in food contact materials (EC, 2010)."


Phthalates are used as solvents and fixatives in perfumes. Phthalates esters were found in fragrances beyond accepted threshold limits. [6]


  1. Phthalate exposure in association with serum hormone levels, sperm DNA damage and spermatozoa apoptosis: A cross-sectional study in China. Environmental Research. 2015 Dec
  2. Determination of free and total phthalates in commercial whole milk products in different packaging materials by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Dairy Science. 2015 Dec
  3. Urinary phthalate metabolites and depression in an elderly population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012. Environmental Research. 2015 Nov
  4. Large Effects From Small Exposures - Effects of Bisphenol A on Human Exposure. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun
  5. BPA exposure during in vitro oocyte maturation results in dose-dependent alterations to embryo development rates, apoptosis rate, sex ratio and gene expression. Reproductive Toxicology. 2015 Dec
  6. Screening of phthalate esters in 47 branded perfumes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 2015 Aug 28.

Jason Jensen, NMD

Author Jason Jensen is a licensed naturopathic medical physician in the state of Arizona.

Wendy Wells

Author Wendy Wells NMD, accredited naturopath physician in Arizona. Call and schedule a 15 minute phone consultation, at no cost.

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Updated: Jan 07 2016