HomeHS RemediesMed NutritionFood HydrationAqua SearchFind

Letters D3

Vitamin D3 Health Effects

By a collection of vitamin D3 topics.

Vitamin D3 has the ability to influence human immune responsiveness. This effect seems to be highly dependent on dihydroxyvitamin D3

25(OH)D(3) - Calcitriol - Cholecalciferol

Translating the role of vitamin D3 in infectious diseases.

Khoo AL, Chai L, Koenen H, Joosten I, Netea M, van der Ven A. - Critical Review Microbiology. 2012 May;38(2):122-35. Epub 2012 Feb 5.

Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Laboratory Medical Immunology, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Vitamin D(3) affects both the innate as well as adaptive immune responses. Epidemiological studies have established that vitamin D(3) deficiency plays an important role in tuberculosis (TB) and viral influenza prevalence as well as susceptibility to active disease in TB. Vitamin D(3) status has been associated with the clinical course of HIV infection and drug interaction with anti-retroviral therapy. This article reviews the immunomodulatory capacity of vitamin D(3) and examines the impact of vitamin D(3) supplementation as a preventive or therapeutic intervention with the intent to uncover its potential therapeutic application in infectious diseases and to identify novel areas for future research. We present a review of randomized, controlled clinical studies conducted in humans which included assessment of the immune function or clinical outcome as study end points. Current data support vitamin D(3) supplementation as risk-modifying intervention in tuberculosis and viral respiratory tract infection, but the optimal dosage regimen remains to be determined. However, to date the knowledge on its role in fungal infection and sepsis is limited although a potential benefit could be harnessed from its ability to curtail the unrestrained pro-inflammatory response and therefore prevent excessive collateral tissue damage. PMID:22304022

Vitamin D and Flu

Sundaram ME, Coleman LA. - Advanced Nutrition. 2012 Jul 1;3(4):517-25.

Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI, USA.

Vitamin D has become increasingly recognized in the literature for its extra-skeletal roles, including an effect on inflammation and the immune response to infection. Our goal was to describe the role of vitamin D in the immune response and implications for the risk of influenza infection in humans. In this review, we first consider literature that provides molecular and genetic support to the idea that vitamin D is related to the adaptive and innate immune responses to influenza infection in vitro and in animal models. We then discuss observational studies and randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in humans. Finally, we consider some of the knowledge gaps surrounding vitamin D and immune response that must be filled.

How important is vitamin D in preventing infections?

Lang PO, Samaras N, Samaras D, Aspinall R. - Osteoporos Int. 2012 Nov 17.

Nescens Centre of Preventive Medicine, Clinic of Genolier, Route du Muids, 3, 1272, Genolier, Switzerland.

Interaction with the immune system is one of the most recently established nonclassic effects of vitamin D (VitD). For many years, this was considered to be limited to granulomatous diseases in which synthesis of active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) or calcitriol is known to be increased. However, recent reports have supported a role for 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in promoting normal function of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Crucially, these effects seem to be mediated not only by the endocrine function of circulating calcitriol but also via paracrine (i.e., refers to effects to adjacent or nearby cells) and/or intracrine activity (i.e., refers to a hormone acting inside a cell) of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) from its precursor 25(OH)D(3), the main circulating metabolite of VitD. The ability of this vitamin to influence human immune responsiveness seems to be highly dependent on the 25(OH)D(3) status of individuals and may lead to aberrant response to infection or even to autoimmunity in those who are lacking VitD. The potential health significance of this has been underlined by increasing awareness of impaired status in populations across the globe. This review will examine the current understanding of how VitD status may modulate the responsiveness of the human immune system. Furthermore, we discuss how it may play a role in host resistance to common pathogens and how effective is its supplementation for treatment or prevention of infectious diseases in humans. PMID: 23160915

Vitamin D and immune function: autocrine, paracrine or endocrine?

Hewison M. - Scandinavian Journal of Clinical Lab Invest Suppl. 2012 Apr;243:92-102.

UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Orthopaedic Hospital Research Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 615 Charles E. Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Prominent amongst the non-classical effects of vitamin D is its interaction with the immune system. Although this has been recognized for many years, it is only through recent studies that we have been able to fully understand the impact of vitamin D on normal innate and adaptive immune function. In particular these studies have illustrated how impaired vitamin D status has important ramifications for dysregulated immune responses to infection and aberrant inflammatory responses associated with autoimmune disease. Indeed it seems likely that the effects of vitamin D will extend beyond these established immune diseases to include additional novel effects, such as interaction with the enteric gut microbiota. Central to this new perspective on vitamin D and immunity has been the elucidation of pivotal mechanisms that underpin the interface between vitamin D and target immune cells. In particular, it is now clear that effects of vitamin D on monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes are not constrained by the metabolic pathways associated with classical endocrine actions of vitamin D. Instead, it is now important to also consider intracrine and paracrine pathways that are subject to a distinct set of modulatory signals, and which may also be influenced by disease-specific dysregulation. The current review will discuss this by comparing the intracrine, paracrine and endocrine metabolic systems that influence the interaction between vitamin D and the immune system. PMID:22536769

Prevention and Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency.

Sinha A, Cheetham TD, Pearce SH. - Calcif Tissue Int. 2012 Nov 3.

Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 3BZ, UK.

Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are widespread in many countries. We review the evidence pertaining to its prevention and treatment. Deficiency may be adequately treated with many different therapeutic regimens of either cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol, owing to the high therapeutic index of both compounds. Nevertheless, the current evidence suggests that regular dosing with oral cholecalciferol (e.g., 60,000 IU weekly) may have slight advantages over other regimens when replenishing vitamin D stores following deficiency. For long-term supplementation, smaller regular doses, such as cholecalciferol 1,000 IU daily, or 10,000 IU weekly, are suitable. Giving reliable and specific advice about appropriate sunlight exposure remains difficult because of differing interindividual skin pigmentation and variable sunlight UVB content at different latitudes, at different times of year, and in different terrestrial environments. PMID:23124916

Vitamin D intake above current dietary reference intakes was not reported to be associated with an increased risk of adverse events. However, most trials of higher doses of vitamin D were not adequately designed to assess long-term harms. PMID:18088161

New perspectives on vitamin D sources in Germany based on a novel mathematical bottom-up model of 25(OH)D serum concentrations.

Brown J, Ignatius A, Amling M, Barvencik F. - European Journal of Nutrition. 2012 Dec 11.

Department of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Up-to-date knowledge about vitamin D supply and serum concentration in Germany is not sufficient. Our purpose was to compare a novel holistic bottom-up modeling of 25(OH)D concentrations with vitamin D sources such as sunlight, food and supplements for all federal states taking seasonal and geographical variations into account. The second purpose was to update and detail vitamin D supply through food in Germany.

To confirm the model of 25(OH)D concentrations, we used the population (1,763 men and 2,267 women, 18-79 years) participated in the representative German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 and the integrated German Nutrition Survey.

The maximum model value is 67.5 nmol/L in July and minimum model value is 29.3 nmol/L in January, while the average model value is 45.0 nmol/L. Men have a mean daily intake of 137 IU (3.42 μg) and women of 112 IU (2.79 μg). Correlation between model and actual data is 0.77 (p = 0.003).

A comparison of the model data with population-based values showed good agreement. None of the vitamin D sources can provide the German population with enough vitamin D. PMID:23229408

Widespread vitamin D deficiency among Indian health care professionals.

Beloyartseva M, Mithal A, Kaur P, Kalra S, Baruah MP, Mukhopadhyay S, Bantwal G, Bandgar TR. - Archive Osteoporosis. 2012 Dec;7(1-2):187-92. Epub 2012 Sep 28.

Department of Endocrinology, Medanta the Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

Information on vitamin D status of Indian health care professionals is limited. Among 2,119 subjects studied, just 6 % were found to be sufficient in vitamin D status. There is urgent need of an integrated approach to detect and treat vitamin D deficiency among health care professionals to improve on-the-job productivity.

Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide. India has been reported to be one of the worst affected countries. Several single-center studies from India have shown high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Little is known regarding the vitamin D status of Indian health care professionals.

This study aimed to determine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among health care professionals in different regions of India.

In this cross-sectional, multicenter study, we enrolled 2,119 medical and paramedical personnel from 18 Indian cities. Blood samples were collected from December 2010 to March 2011 and analyzed in a central laboratory by radioimmunoassay. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <20 ng/mL or <50 nmol/L, insufficiency as 25(OH)D = 20-30 ng/mL or 50-75 nmol/L, and sufficiency as 25(OH)D >30 ng/mL or >75 nmol/L.

Mean (±SD) age of subjects was 42.71 ± 6.8 years. Mean (±SD) 25(OH)D level was 14.35 ± 10.62 ng/mL (median 11.93 ng/mL). Seventy-nine percent of subjects were deficient, 15 % were insufficient, and just 6 % were sufficient in vitamin D status. No significant difference was found between vitamin D status in southern (25(OH)D = 13.3 ± 6.4 ng/mL) and northern (25(OH)D = 14.4 ± 8.5 ng/mL) parts of India.

Our study confirms the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency all across India in apparently healthy, middle-aged health care professionals. PMID:23225296

Interactions between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Vitamin D Receptor Gene FokI Polymorphisms for Renal Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Yokoyama K, Nakashima A, Urashima M, Suga H, Mimura T, Kimura Y, Kanazawa Y, Yokota T, Sakamoto M, Ishizawa S, Nishimura R, Kurata H, Tanno Y, Tojo K, Kageyama S, Ohkido I, Utsunomiya K, Hosoya T.- PLoS One. Dec 2012;7(12):e51171.

Division of Kidney, Hypertension, Department of International Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

We aimed to examine associations among serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels, 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D (1,25OHD) levels, vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms, and renal function based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes.

In a cross-sectional study of 410 patients, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage assessed by eGFR was compared with 25OHD, 1,25OHD, and VDR FokI (rs10735810) polymorphisms by an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for the following confounders: disease duration, calendar month, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers or statins, and serum calcium, phosphate, and intact parathyroid hormone levels.

1,25OHD levels, rather than 25OHD levels, showed seasonal oscillations; peak levels were seen from May to October and the lowest levels were seen from December to February. These findings were evident in patients with CKD stage 3∼5 but not stage 1∼2. eGFR was in direct proportion to both 25OHD and 1,25OHD levels (P<0.0001), but it had stronger linearity with 1,25OHD (r = 0.73) than 25OHD (r = 0.22) levels. Using multivariate analysis, 1,25OHD levels (P<0.001), but not 25OHD levels, were negatively associated with CKD stage. Although FokI polymorphisms by themselves showed no significant associations with CKD stage, a significant interaction between 1,25OHD and FokITT was observed (P = 0.008). The positive association between 1,25OHD and eGFR was steeper in FokICT and CC polymorphisms (r = 0.74) than FokITT polymorphisms (r = 0.65).

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that higher 1,25OHD levels may be associated with better CKD stages in patients with type 2 diabetes and that this association was modified by FokI polymorphisms. PMID:23226566

Vitamin D and innate immunity of the skin

Reinholz M, Schauber J. -Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2012 Nov;137(46):2385-9.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Dermatologie und Allergologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München.

Besides its role in bone metabolism vitamin D is involved in important regulatory mechanisms within the innate and adaptive immune system. In particular, vitamin D affects the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). AMPs are endogenous 'antibiotics', produced my man himself with further immune regulatory functions in the skin and other epithelial surfaces. AMPs play a central role in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic eczema or psoriasis. Therefore, the vitamin D signal pathway could serve as a treatment target for those diseases. In this review we discuss the role of the vitamin D signalling pathway in the context of innate immunity in inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:23132159

Chronic Kidney Disease - The virtues of vitamin D-but how much is too much?

Pediatric Nephrology 2010 April - Shroff R, Knott C, Rees L.Department of Nephrology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street, London, WC1N 3JH, UK,.

Vitamin D deficiency is common in healthy adults and children as well as in the chronic kidney disease population. What was once a disease of malnourished children in the developing world has re-emerged and reached pandemic proportions. In parallel with this development, there is a growing awareness that vitamin D is not simply a 'calcaemic hormone' but plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, infectious and auto-immune conditions, renoprotection, glycaemic control and prevention of some common cancers. Most tissues in the body have a vitamin D receptor and the enzymatic machinery to convert 'nutritional' 25-hydroxyvitamin D to the active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; it is estimated that 3% of the human genome is regulated by the vitamin D endocrine system. Although there are few well-conducted studies on the benefits of vitamin D therapy, an exuberant use of vitamin D is now seen in the general population and at all stages of chronic kidney disease. There is emerging evidence that vitamin D may in fact have a therapeutic window, and at least from the effects on the cardiovascular system, more is not necessarily better. In this review, we discuss the role of nutritional vitamin D (ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol) supplementation in chronic kidney disease patients, interpreting the clinical studies in the light of the vitamin D metabolic pathway and its pluripotent effects. While nutritional vitamin D compounds clearly have numerous beneficial effects, randomised controlled studies are required to determine the effectiveness and optimal dose at different stages of chronic kidney disease, its concurrent use with activated vitamin D compounds and its safety profile.


are assistants of board reviewed doctors that are medical editors, authors, and reviewers, providing oversight for Heartspring.net. This article is currently undergoing doctor reveiw.

What's the difference?

√Edit TopicsSite PolicyUse ContactHi

Updated: Dec 21 2013